Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Reduced Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents



To assess the association of adherence to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents.
Study design

Dietary data were collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire among 425 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years. MetS was defined as the presence of at least 3 of the following according to the Cook criteria: waist circumference ≥90th percentile for sex and age according to national reference curves; systolic blood pressure and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90th percentile for sex, age, and height; fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dL; triglycerides ≥110 mg/dL; and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dL. The DASH-style diet score was assessed based on 8 components: high intakes of whole grain, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes; moderate amounts of low-fat dairy products; and low intake of red and processed meat, sweetened beverages, and sodium. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI after 3.6 years of follow-up for developing MetS in each quartile of DASH score after adjustment for baseline confounders.

Mean ± SD for age and DASH score were 13.6 ± 3.7 years and 24.1 ± 4.3, respectively, at baseline. The OR (95% CI) of developing MetS in the highest, compared with the lowest, quartile of DASH score was 0.36 (0.14-0.94) with a linear decreasing trend (P for trend = .023). Also, incidence of hypertension, high fasting plasma glucose, and abdominal obesity decreased with higher adherence to DASH diet (P < .05 for all).

Our findings indicate the relationship of adherence to DASH-style diet with MetS and some of its components in both children and adolescents.

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